Cracking the door to the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) is no easy feat. Out of the numerous hopeful applicants, only 1-3% secure a consulting job offer with the firm. One key stepping stone in this journey is the BCG Online Case Assessment or the Casey Chatbot Interview. The assessment’s pivotal nature has made it a crucial part of the BCG recruiting process.
If you’ve ever dreamed of being a part of BCG’s elite team, understanding this new assessment model is your first step. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll unpack everything about the BCG Online Case Experience and the Chatbot interview. From what it entails, the skills it assesses, and how you can most effectively prepare, we’ll cover it all. So, let’s get started!
BCG Online Case Experience: A Quick Overview
BCG Online Case Assessment, also known as the Casey Chatbot Interview, is a digital assessment where you’re guided through a specific business case by a chatbot named Casey. This chatbot interview has replaced the BCG Online Case or BCG Potential Test, assessing applicants’ problem-solving skills within a time-constrained environment.
Here are a few quick facts about the assessment:
- What it Involves: The BCG Casey Chatbot Interview is an advanced digital assessment that examines your understanding of a specific business case, with a chatbot named Casey steering you through the case study.
- Design Features: The assessment comprises a series of questions revolving around real-time challenges a company might face, ingeniously designed to reflect problems typically dealt with by BCG consultants.
- Test Duration: This time-bound evaluation is expected to be completed within 25 minutes without any provision to pause.
- Assessment Structure: The test is systematically structured with 8-10 analytical questions, concluding with a video recommendation.
- Content Overview: The assessment questions focus on an abstract, real-world business issue experienced by a specific company (for example, an airline consistently losing market share). The questions span multiple-choice queries, fill-in-the-blanks, open-ended questions, and a final one-minute video recommendation. These questions mirror the content of the previous Online Case, involving structured, exhibit, and mathematical problems, along with synthesis and recommendation.
- Evaluation Parameters: The Casey Chatbot Interview quantifies your responses to generate an absolute product score while also gauging your communication abilities.
- Exclusions: The evaluation does not include personality trait assessments, which are part of the fit interview and Pymetrics.
- Test Environment: The convenience of this digital evaluation allows you to complete it from the comfort of your home and use some helper tools like Excel or a calculator.
- Targeted Participants: The Casey Chatbot Interview is implemented worldwide and is a requirement for most candidates applying for consulting roles.
- Feedback Mechanism: Post the evaluation, candidates only receive a pass or fail notification after a few days.
Understanding the Purpose
The Casey Interview serves two primary goals:
- Efficiency & Cost-effectiveness: As a swift and economical method, it enables the assessment of a vast number of candidates. This additional step in the recruiting funnel lessens the number of candidates moving forward to case interviews, consequently reducing the hours consultants spend on interviewing applicants, thereby reducing the cost of recruitment over time. This is akin to the McKinsey Solve Game or the Bain SOVA test. The convenience of administering this test from home makes this an even more valuable investment for BCG, as HR resources only need to get involved lightly.
- Standardization & Comparability: The test, although involving different cases, is highly standardized with the same evaluation metrics. This enables BCG to compare candidate performance objectively, adding another layer of fairness to the process, a trait highly valued by top-tier consulting firms during recruiting.
Introducing the BCG Casey Chatbot Interview
In 2020, feedback regarding a new testing format that was initiated in Asian BCG offices and later extended to European and North American offices emerged. In 2023 it appears that almost all offices use the Casey chatbot during the assessment. Nonetheless, we recommend reaching out to the HR department of your desired BCG office prior to applying to pre-empt any surprises.
The rise of chatbots has paved the way for them to be utilized in the hiring process, and BCG, being a forward-thinking top-tier consulting company, hopped on the bandwagon partnering with Casey, thereby replacing the former BCG Online Case and Potential Test (which was also computer-based but had to be taken from the local office, often in combination with the first-round case interview).
While the new format essentially tests the same skills as the classic online case – problem decomposition, analysis, and providing a recommendation – there are certain nuances to be aware of.
Key Features of the BCG Online Case Assessment
- Fully Online: The assessment is entirely online and can be taken from home before your interviews.
- Duration & Structure: The test lasts around 30 minutes (including the video recommendation) and comprises a maximum of 8-10 questions. This contrasts with the old format’s 45-minute duration and 23 questions.
- Open Questions: Unlike the previous single/multiple-choice questions, there are some open-ended questions.
- Scoring: The scoring of answers isn’t transparent as they also encompass qualitative elements, however, no points are deducted for incorrect answers.
- Use of Calculators: Since the test is taken from home, calculators or the use of Excel are allowed. The emphasis is on quickly devising the right calculation approach.
- Video Recommendation: At the conclusion of the test, a brief, 1-minute video recording is required where you explain your recommendations and analytical approach to a fictional client.
Understanding the Skillset Assessed by BCG’s Casey Chatbot
BCG has developed the Casey chatbot to replicate the dynamic environment of a traditional case interview online. But what exactly are the skills Casey evaluates during an online case assessment? Here’s an in-depth look at each skill and practical examples of how they manifest during the test-taking stage.
Idea Generation and Creativity
The ability to think outside the box and generate innovative ideas is a critical skill assessed by BCG. The firm values individuals who can produce fresh perspectives and creative solutions to complex problems. For example, during the online case assessment, you might be given a scenario where a company is experiencing a decline in sales. A creative solution might involve leveraging untapped markets or developing novel marketing strategies rather than simply reducing costs.
Business Sense and Intuition
A strong business acumen, encompassing an understanding of market dynamics, industry trends, and economic factors, is another vital skill for potential consultants. During the assessment, you might be presented with a case about a firm planning to launch a new product. A test-taker with a keen business sense would consider aspects like potential competition, target audience, and economic conditions before deciding on the feasibility of the product launch.
Analytical Rigor and Logical Thinking
BCG seeks individuals capable of rigorous analysis and logical reasoning. This skill involves breaking down complex issues into manageable parts, identifying patterns, and making data-driven decisions. For instance, in a case scenario involving a company with declining profits, you would need to analyze different aspects like revenue, costs, market share, and competitors. Using logical thinking, you’d pinpoint the root causes of the problem and suggest appropriate solutions.
Mental Math and Affinity for Numbers
Strong quantitative skills, particularly mental math, and comfort with numbers are crucial in management consulting. BCG’s online case assessment may present you with numerical data, graphs, or charts that you must interpret quickly and accurately. For example, you might be asked to calculate the company’s profit margin or forecast future sales based on given data.
Effective communication, especially the ability to present complex information succinctly, is another skill assessed by BCG. The online assessment may require you to explain your solutions or strategies concisely. In a practical scenario, you might be asked to summarize a complex turnaround strategy for a struggling business in a few key points.
Lastly, BCG values maturity, which they define as the ability to handle pressure, make sound judgments, and demonstrate professional behavior. In a case assessment, this could be reflected in how you handle time management or how you present yourself at the end during the video recommendation. Maturity could also be evaluated indirectly by looking at how you manage a crisis situation for a client or make tough decisions that balance business goals with ethical considerations.
In summary, BCG’s online case assessment evaluates a wide range of skills crucial in the management consulting field. By understanding these key areas and how they might be tested, you can better prepare and enhance your performance in the assessment.
Key Themes in the BCG Online Case Assessment
The Online Case Assessment is an in-depth examination of your consulting skills, drawing parallels to the interviewer-led case interviews used by other top-tier firms like McKinsey. This test revolves around four central themes – each evaluating your skills discussed above. Let’s delve into these themes, provide an understanding of their relevance in the online case assessment, and present practical examples that can appear during the test.
At the heart of problem-solving lies the art of structuring. BCG’s online case assessment evaluates your ability to dissect a complex issue into more manageable components. It’s about creating a roadmap at the onset of the case interview that will guide your investigation process. For example, if you’re asked to devise a strategy for boosting a company’s declining sales, you might structure the problem into key areas such as market analysis, competitive landscape, internal processes, and customer behavior.
For more information on case frameworks and structures, read our article here:
An essential aspect of the case assessment is chart or data interpretation. This skill tests your ability to extract vital insights from charts or data sets and relate them back to the case question and the client’s situation. For instance, you might be given a graph showing a company’s sales performance over several quarters. The task could involve identifying trends or anomalies in the data and providing a meaningful interpretation relevant to the client’s challenge.
For more information on chart interpretation, read our article here:
Case Interview Math
Another theme emphasized in the BCG online case assessment is case interview math. Here, you’re expected to apply mathematical business analysis to a problem, followed by a qualitative investigation of the resulting numerical data or deriving specific recommendations. A practical example could involve determining the breakeven point for a new product launch. You would have to calculate the number of units needed to cover the product’s fixed and variable costs and then derive strategic implications from the result.
For more information on case interview math, read our article here:
The final theme is synthesis, which demands you compile all your collected insights and formulate a strategic recommendation for your client. Synthesis allows you to showcase your big-picture thinking and your ability to draw conclusions from a wide array of data. For example, after analyzing market trends, customer preferences, and internal capabilities for a product expansion case, you might need to provide a clear and actionable recommendation, such as expanding into a particular market or enhancing certain product features.
For more information on case interview communication, read our articles here:
The Question Types of the BCG Online Case
Taking up to 30 minutes (with the video recommendation), the BCG Chatbot interview stands as a test of your ability to navigate complex business problems. Unlike the typical candidate-led style at BCG, the Casey chatbot leads you through the case, posing questions that will ultimately guide your analysis to a fruitful conclusion.
The eight to ten questions you’ll encounter are presented in different question formats and revolve around integral aspects of a case study. This includes the structuring of your analysis, identifying the appropriate data needed for problem-solving, employing simple case math, and interpreting exhibits. It’s worth noting that these questions may build upon each other, emphasizing the importance of recalling previous answers as you progress.
Finally, you’ll be given two attempts to record a 1-minute synthesis and recommendation, wrapping up your analysis succinctly and effectively. This finale is crucial in demonstrating your understanding of the case and providing strategic advice akin to a real consulting scenario.
Understanding the various question types in the BCG Online Case Assessment is key to maximizing your performance. This guide will closely examine the different formats and share strategic tips for tackling each type.
Let’s look into the question types and format more closely.
In the context of the BCG Online Case, a single-choice question is a type of question that presents several options but requires you to select only one correct or most appropriate answer. These questions are used to assess your problem-solving skills, business acumen, or analytical abilities.
For instance, you might be asked, “Which of the following strategies should the client implement to boost their revenue growth?” The options could include various strategic initiatives such as market expansion, product diversification, cost reduction, etc. Your task is to select the single strategy that you believe is the most suitable based on the case information provided.
A multiple-choice question in the BCG Online Case allows you to select more than one correct answer from the options provided. These questions typically surface when there are multiple valid responses to a given problem or scenario in the case.
For example, the question could be, “What data should we gather to analyze the company’s declining profits?” The answer options might encompass various data points such as sales data, cost structure, market trends, and competitor analysis. Here, depending on the context of the case, several of these data types could be relevant, and you would select all that apply to analyze the problem at hand effectively.
Both single-choice and multiple-choice questions can offer a range of 2 to 10 choices. Case queries may adhere to any of the following formats:
- Hypothesis-forming questions: “What assumptions would you make in addressing this issue?”
- Problem-solving queries: “Given these obstacles, what remedies would you propose to our client?”
- Value proposition queries: “What should the client provide to meet their customers’ needs?”
- Evidence-seeking questions: “What information would you like to analyze to understand this better?”
As a general rule, start by eliminating responses that seem irrelevant before focusing on the more plausible answers. Consider using decision tree logic for a structured approach to each question, whether it involves math or a word problem.
1. Carefully Read the Questions and Answers: Before diving into the options, ensure you fully understand the question. A misinterpreted question can lead to an incorrect answer. Similarly, thoroughly read through all the answer choices. Some options may be designed to sound correct but could be misleading.
2. Process of Elimination: If you’re unsure about the correct answer, use a process of elimination. Identify choices that are clearly incorrect or irrelevant and eliminate them. This can narrow down your options and increase your odds of selecting the correct answer.
3. Look for Cues in the Question: Sometimes, the question itself can provide cues or hints towards the correct answer. Watch for any specific words or phrases that could guide you to the correct choice.
4. Don’t Overthink: While you should consider all options carefully, avoid overthinking. Typically, the most straightforward answer is often the correct one.
5. Beware of the “All of the Above” Option: If one of the options is “all of the above” or “none of the above”, consider it carefully. These options can be correct, but they can also serve as distractors.
6. Use Your Case Knowledge: Your understanding of the case and its details can help you make an informed choice. If an option doesn’t align with the case details you’ve studied, it’s likely not the correct answer.
Open-format questions are more interested in your thought process rather than the final result. Unlike multiple-choice questions that provide a product score, these questions allow BCG to gain insight into your analytical thinking and award a process score. You might be asked to describe your logic for a numerical answer or write about your thought process around a particular issue or analysis outcome.
For example, “If you had to prioritize one answer from above, state which one and why?”
Approaching open-format questions in the BCG Online Case requires a blend of critical thinking, clarity in communication, and a solid understanding of the case context. Here are a few tips on how to effectively tackle these questions:
1. Understand the Question Fully: Before you begin to formulate your response, make sure you understand what the question is asking. It may be helpful to rephrase the question in your own words to ensure you’ve grasped the core ask.
2. Prioritize Logical Thinking: Remember, these questions are designed to assess your thought process more than the final outcome. Make sure you showcase your logical and analytical thinking in your responses. For example, if you’re asked to describe your logic for a numerical answer, don’t just provide the number; explain how you arrived at it step-by-step.
3. Be Structured and Coherent: Given these questions often require written responses, it’s crucial to be clear and structured in your explanation. Use clear language, follow a logical flow, and break down complex thoughts into smaller, understandable parts.
4. Justify Your Choices: Whenever you make a decision or a choice, be sure to provide justification. If a question asks you to prioritize an answer, explain why you chose that particular one. Highlight the reasons behind your choice, linking back to the case’s details, objectives, or challenges.
5. Keep it Concise: While it’s important to be thorough in your explanations, avoid being overly verbose. Strive to communicate your thought process as succinctly and directly as possible.
6. Review and Edit: Finally, don’t forget to proofread your response for clarity, grammar, and coherence before moving on. It’s important that your thought process comes across as clear and polished.
Fill-in questions require you to provide a numerical answer or complete a statement. These questions typically assess your ability to understand and interpret data.
An example could be, “Variable manufacturing cost increased by <xx.x%> over the last year.”
1. Understand the Context: Before you start calculating or formulating an answer, ensure that you fully understand the context of the question. Know what’s being asked and how the data you’re working with relates to the overall case.
2. Check the Unit of Measurement: When dealing with numerical answers, it’s crucial to confirm the unit of measurement the question requires. Whether it’s a percentage, a currency, or a unit of volume, getting the unit right is as important as getting the number right.
3. Use a Systematic Approach: When tackling numerical problems, try to break them down into smaller, manageable steps. This will make your calculations easier to handle and also reduce the chance of errors.
4. Review Your Calculations: Double-check your calculations to ensure accuracy. A small computational error can lead to a significantly wrong answer, which could impact your overall performance.
5. Be Concise and Direct: When completing a statement, be concise and direct. Avoid unnecessary jargon or complex sentence structures. The goal is to communicate your answer clearly and effectively.
6. Refer Back to the Case Details: If you’re unsure about your answer, refer back to the case details. There might be information there that can guide you to the correct response.
For the video recommendation, you’ll need to record a one-minute statement summarizing the case and offering a recommendation. This closely mirrors the synthesis and summary section of a traditional case interview.
The trick here is to structure your answer using the pyramid principle: start with your recommendation (“Based on our analysis, I recommend the following <x> actions”), signpost your arguments (“because of the following <x> reasons”), provide supporting arguments (First, …, Second, …), and discuss next steps and potential risks (“This entails certain risks,…”, “To mitigate we would need to…”).
Remember, you’re given one attempt for this section. So, make your shots count!
As an example, “Provide a recommendation for the client on resolving their low revenue situation.”
Video recommendations in the BCG Online Case represent an opportunity to bring together all your insights from the case and articulate a cohesive strategy for the client. Here are some tips on how to effectively approach this question type:
1. Practice Clear and Concise Communication: Remember, you only have one minute to deliver your recommendation. Make sure your message is clear and direct. Avoid using jargon or overly complex sentences.
2. Follow a Logical Structure: A well-structured recommendation can significantly boost its effectiveness. A recommended structure might be:
- Begin with a brief summary of the case (not critical for success)
- State your main recommendation.
- Provide supporting arguments or evidence.
- Discuss potential risks and ways to mitigate them.
3. Leverage the Pyramid Principle: The pyramid principle is a communication technique where you start with your most important point (your recommendation) and then provide supporting arguments. This ensures that even if your time is cut short, the most crucial information has been communicated.
4. Be Persuasive: Your recommendation should be persuasive. Clearly articulate why your proposed solution is the best way forward, leveraging data and insights from the case.
5. Showcase Your Presentation Skills: Use this opportunity to demonstrate your presentation skills. Speak clearly, maintain a good posture, and try to appear confident and composed. Remember, your communication style can be as important as the content of your recommendation.
6. Review and Practice: Before you record your final take, practice your recommendation a few times. This can help ensure a smooth delivery and also helps identify any areas that need refinement. You have two attempts to record your video, but it’s best to aim to get it right the first time.
7. Keep Time Constraints in Mind: Keep your recommendation succinct and on-point, respecting the time limit. Having a timer nearby while practicing could be helpful.
If you inadvertently select the “incorrect” choices in the multiple-choice questions or gravitate towards an area with minimal scope for improvement, the chatbot will attempt to guide you back on track through a series of follow-up questions.
The easiest way to spot these questions is to identify if they’re aiming to dispute, modify, or cast uncertainty over your case approach (e.g., “Are you confident you’ve gathered enough information to draw that inference?”).
Sometimes, it could be that you’ve fully explored one aspect of the problem, finding no root cause or potential for improvement. However, in other instances, it may indicate that there’s a flaw in your strategy. So, when confronted with these types of questions, it’s advisable to take a brief pause to ensure you haven’t overlooked any aspects of your case dissection.
Optimize Your BCG Online Case Assessment Preparation
The BCG Online Case Assessment has been a key feature of the interview process for some time now, resulting in candidates being generally well-equipped and leading to a noticeable uptick in overall scores. To truly distinguish yourself and impress Casey in this new landscape, you’ll need to adopt innovative strategies in addition to established ones.
We’ve broken down the preparation process into a manageable 2-step strategy designed to help you outshine your peers in your upcoming assessment:
- Understanding the Assessment: Get acquainted with the exam, its surroundings, and logistics, as well as the competencies tested, question styles, and the format of the test. The best resources to assist you in achieving this are:
- Our comprehensive guide on the BCG Chatbot Case, featuring real sample tests
- BCG Invitation Email and PDF
- BCG Online Case Assessment Practice Test
- This very article
- Practice: It’s vital to consistently tackle tests and exercises that mimic the BCG case structure, focusing on key areas like data structuring, graph interpretation, and numerical problems. Sharpen your skills in verbal synthesis and recommendation, along with refining your business acumen and decision-making abilities. The following sources can aid you in your practice:
- Sample Tests from StrategyCase.com
- BCG Interactive Case Library
- Previous BCG Online Cases and Potential Tests
- McKinsey interviewer-led cases
- Former McKinsey Problem Solving Tests
- Live case practice with mentors and fellow aspirants
- Business school case compendiums
- Business and financial periodicals
Devote particular attention to developing the following skills:
- Math: Practice creating equations to determine a specific value or figure. Certain questions in the case might require you to calculate a particular number. This could be straightforward arithmetic (for example, calculating a growth rate with three variables), or more complex scenarios where you need to devise an intricate calculation strategy. Hence, honing the skill of constructing formulas in complex systems is key.
- Logical Reasoning: For questions asking you to select the correct answer or statement, focus on mastering these three areas:
- Reading comprehension: Learn to extract key points from intricate business texts and interpret their core statements.
- Chart, table, and data interpretation: Strengthen your ability to comprehend, interpret complex data, and draw accurate conclusions from it.
- Logical reasoning: Perfect your deductive skills to discern correct statements from various information sources. Preparing for GMAT reasoning questions can prove extremely beneficial for this.
- Top-Down Synthesis and Communication: To tackle summary and synthesis questions, you’ll need to master the pyramid principle, similar to a case interview.
In this preparation journey, both a holistic approach to the test and a strategic response to each individual question are crucial for your success.
Maximize Your Performance During the Test
What habits can boost your performance during the test?
Stay calm. The competencies evaluated and the variety of questions are identical to those in the case interview. Here are some essential tips to adhere to before and during the examination.
Test-Taking Habits for the BCG Online Case
Optimize Your System Setup
- Ensure your computer and internet connection are compatible with the sample test before initiating the actual exam. Have a backup internet connection ready via your mobile device.
- Chrome is the recommended browser for the exam, so make sure it’s ready for use.
- Verify that your webcam is functional and not obstructed by other applications.
- Keep a coffee or water handy before commencing the final segment of the assessment.
Manage Your Surroundings
- Choose a tranquil environment with no background noises for the test.
- Minimize potential distractions and inform those around you to avoid disturbing you for the upcoming 30 minutes.
Focus on the Questions
- Pay close attention to the instructions and question briefs to avoid simple errors and traps.
- Jot down the most crucial facts to keep them accessible throughout the assessment.
- Keep all exhibit tabs open for future reference as you can’t revisit previous answers and exhibits.
Maintain a Finisher Mindset
- Be prepared with a strategy to tackle every question type and decision, such as eliminating incorrect options for multiple-choice questions.
- Progress through each question quickly and accurately. Remember that once an answer is submitted, it’s final, and questions must be answered in the order they appear.
Monitor the Clock
- Stay mindful of the overall test timing and the timing for each question.
- Don’t allow frustration over a previous question to slow your pace for the remainder of the exam.
Avoid Falling into Common Pitfalls
Feedback from our client interviews about the assessment highlighted four primary challenges they encountered:
- The persistent time pressure throughout the assessment.
- The increased difficulty level compared to the BCG’s practice test, particularly for math questions.
- The overall format, which left some test-takers uncertain about the best way to answer questions.
- The stress induced when an incorrect answer was selected, as the chatbot immediately informs you in order to progress the case in the correct direction.
Your Comprehensive Guide to BCG Online Case Experience
We’ve developed an all-in-one solution for all BCG Aptitude assessments. Our extensive 123-page guide, created in collaboration with previous test-takers and BCG insiders, covers the chatbot interview, the online case, the one-way video interview, and the Pymetrics. The guide provides:
- A thorough breakdown of each assessment, the skills tested, and tips on the best ways to approach each.
- The most effective preparation advice, tools, and exercises for each assessment.
- Insider strategies for taking the tests to optimize your scores for each test and game.
- 5 sample Casey tests to mirror the real BCG Online Case Assessment experience.
By following this guide, you’ll be able to
- answer all questions accurately within the stipulated time
- present yourself impressively for the recommendation part
- practice most efficiently and save time
- stay confident that you’re always preparing for the most current version
BCG Online Case: The Insider Guide
$ 89 / $54
Below, we have kept some information on the older BCG Online Case and Potential Test, which might still be relevant for candidates in some offices.
The Former Online Case and Potential Test
- What it is: A computer-based test with questions about a specific business case
- Design: A sequence of questions surrounding an issue a company is facing, developed internally to represent the types of problems that BCG consultants face in their daily lives.
- Length: 45 minutes, it cannot be paused
- Structure: 23 questions with different emphases
- Content: Expect questions about an abstract real-life business problem of a specific company (e.g., an airline that is constantly losing market share). The questions are split into math and word problems (40%), as well as data interpretation and reading comprehension (60%)
- Tests for: The Online Case measures your answers and computes an absolute product score. You get +3 points for every correct answer and -1 for every wrong answer. Currently, the inofficial cut-off score is below 70-75%
- Does not test for: The process of how you arrived at your answers, like most cognitive-based assessments. BCG has no idea how you think, approach problems, and make decisions by using this type of test
- Test-setting: The test is done at your local BCG office on stationary or laptop computers provided by BCG
- Test-takers: Mandatory for all candidates applying for consulting roles
- Feedback: If the test is part of the first round, then you will be notified immediately about your results. If the test is used as a gatekeeper to move on to the case interviews, you will be notified within 10-14 days about your results. Ping HR if you have a more urgent deadline or counter-offer.
The BCG Online Case focuses on three different question types (same as the former McKinsey PST test). The questions are split into math and word problems (40%), as well as data interpretation and reading comprehension (60%). A similar distribution is to be expected for the chatbot interview.
As for the math problems, most commonly, you would have to calculate with fractions, percentages, averages, weighted averages, ratios, and decimals.
The word problems are very similar to integrated reasoning questions and can, for instance, revolve around maximizing or minimizing a certain variable (e.g. revenue, profit, cost,…) or calculating supply and demand interception points.
What we see most commonly here could be referred to as verbal reasoning question types, such as drawing inferences or strengthening or weakening an argument.