Mastering Case Interview Frameworks in 2024: A Comprehensive Guide

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Last Updated on May 27, 2024

In the competitive world of consulting recruiting, mastering case interviews is a crucial step towards landing a job at top firms like McKinsey, BCG, and Bain. Discovering how to structure case interviews in consulting is fundamental, as the foundation of successful performance lies in effectively tackling complex business problems. In 2024, with more challenging and creative cases, understanding how to craft a compelling case interview framework is more important than ever.

This article serves as a comprehensive case structure guide, diving deep into the art and science of structuring your analysis and providing you with essential insights into what a case interview framework entails, why it’s critical for your success, and the different strategies you can employ to impress your interviewers from the get-go.

Starting with an overview of what case interview frameworks are and their significance, we explore the nuances and provide essential case structuring tips that set apart winning strategies from the rest. We offer tips for acing consulting firm case interview frameworks. Whether you’re wondering about the types of frameworks that exist, what constitutes a robust case interview structure, or if memorizing frameworks is beneficial, we’ve got you covered.

This guide is based on our experience as McKinsey interviewers and cas coaches with more than 1600 case interview sessions conducted at the time of writing. It is designed to give you a head start in your case interview preparation, ensuring you’re well-equipped to structure your thoughts like a seasoned consultant.

By integrating key concepts with practical advice, this article is your ultimate guide to consulting case structure and acing case interviews in 2024. Stay tuned as we guide you on answering consulting structuring questions with confidence and tackle some of the most pressing consulting framework questions, helping you structure your approach in case interviews more effectively. We want to give you a head start by answering the following questions in this article:

  • What is a case interview framework?
  • Why do you need to structure your approach?
  • Are there different types of frameworks?
  • What makes a good case interview structure?
  • Should you learn case interview frameworks by heart?
  • How can you create frameworks from scratch using a first-principles approach?
  • What is the best way to practice framework creation?
  • How do you structure a McKinsey case interview? Is it different from candidate-led interviews?

This article is part of our consulting case interview series. For the other articles, please click below:

What is a Case Interview Framework?

A case interview structure is used to break the problem you are trying to solve for the client down into smaller problems or components. It is the roadmap you establish at the beginning of the interview that will guide your problem-solving approach throughout the case.

You are defining areas to analyze that help you understand where the problem is coming from or how to answer the question of a client.

In that sense, structuring your approach is the first important step in every case interview. Initially, the interviewer will tell you about the client’s situation and the problem they are asking you to solve. After playing back the prompt and asking clarification questions, you need to structure your approach and create a case interview framework.

Let’s look at one traditional example:

Our client is a beverage manufacturer and has seen declining profits over the last year. They have called us to investigate the issue and propose ways out of it.

A typical case interview prompt (simplified)

For you as a candidate, getting the framework right is the first step to successfully acing the case. If you fail to propose a proper analytical structure, you will not be able to investigate the situation and find the root cause of the issue.

A case interview framework usually consists of a top layer and several sub-levels, where the top-level buckets cover the issue broadly, whereas the sub-level buckets identify more concrete areas to look at.

To illustrate, the most common and basic structure that would allow us to analyze the situation on top would be looking at:

Profit = Revenue – Cost

This high-level structure is used for profitability cases when you are tasked to solve an issue with the client’s profit development. The two buckets revenue and cost represent the top level. To analyze the problem properly, you would need to go deeper and figure out what sub-levels influence the variables you are looking at.

For instance, for our beverage manufacturer, you could look at cost and break it down into fixed cost and variable cost with a 3rd level of concrete areas to investigate:

Cost TypeExamples (not exhaustive)
Fixed CostsRent or mortgage for factory space
Salaries of permanent staff
Insurance premiums
Utility bills (to a certain extent, as they can have variable components based on usage)
Variable CostsRaw materials (sugar, flavorings, water)
Packaging materials
Energy consumption for production processes
Labor (overtime or temporary workers)
Transportation and logistics costs for distribution
Framework example break-down

It is important to tailor the structure and associated sub-levels to the case questions. Framework templates were en vogue 5-10 years ago and consulting firms have moved away from asking generic cases that would fit the frameworks taught by Case in Point or Victor Cheng (more on that below).

In terms of format, the best-practice approach to structuring a case is to build an issue tree with branches, which are split into several sub-branches (see the example below).

the image shows how to create a profitability framework in a case interview
Example of a case interview framework

As with most other aspects of the case interview, mastering effective consulting interview frameworks and deconstructing problems is a skill that needs to be learned, internalized, and practiced to perform best during the interviews.

We’ll cover this in much more detail later in this article.

Why Do You Need a Framework to Structure Your Approach?

The initial structure you need to come up with serves three important purposes in a case interview.

Investigative roadmap

First, it is the roadmap you establish initially that guides your problem-solving throughout the case. Once you lay out your planned approach, you should go through each bucket or branch of your issue tree to find the issue(s) the client is facing or to evaluate the ideas you came up with to fit the needs of the client and then work on your recommendation(s). The case framework serves as the anchor you should stick to as you move through your analysis.

Communication device

Second, it is used as a communication device to guide the interviewer through your thought process and approach. Additionally, moving through the structure allows you to ask targeted questions to the interviewer about additional data or information on each point.

Analytical test

Third, coming up with a proper structure and communicating it well is a test in itself. The interviewer tries to understand how well you can tackle unfamiliar problems. They will evaluate your thinking, logic, analytical capabilities, and problem-solving prowess as well as communication skills.

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Different Types of Frameworks with Examples

Generally, two types of case frameworks exist, depending on the nature of the question.

Either you are asked to break a problem down into its parts and understand where an issue comes from to provide a recommendation (e.g. ”Our client is trying to understand why…?”) or you are asked to answer a specific question (”Should our client engage in…?”).

Figuring out a problem

A structure here is the starting point and anchor of your problem diagnostic.

First, you need to think about all potential problem areas, then drill down into each branch to figure out what is wrong exactly by collecting more information from the interviewer and exhibits; based on your probing you will receive information from the interviewer that you have to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively, then provide a recommendation in the end.

Answer a question

For these types of questions, a structure is a systematic analysis of a situation or comparison of options that you want to investigate on behalf of the client to help them with a specific goal or question.

For both types of structures, you should follow a hypothesis-driven approach, i.e. already having a clear vision of where the problem could be buried most likely or what approach or idea would best support the client’s goal.

TypeExplanationCase Prompt
Figuring out a problemThis structure is utilized as a diagnostic tool to dissect a problem into smaller components. You analyze these components to identify the root cause and subsequently offer recommendations.“Your client has seen a decline in market share over the past year. What could be the underlying reasons, and how would you address them?”
Answer a questionHere, the structure serves as a systematic way to evaluate ideas aimed at achieving a specific goal for the client. It involves defining relevant criteria and evaluating various initiatives.“The client wants to enter a new market by the end of the year. What mode of entry would you recommend to ensure a successful launch?”
Two different types of frameworks in a case interview

Apart from knowing what frameworks are used for, what characteristics make a strong case interview structure?

Criteria of Strong Case Interview Frameworks

A good case interview framework follows several rules.

Let’s break them down into content requirements and principles.

Content requirements

An excellent structure is broad at the top level, goes into greater depth on the sub-levels, and consists of meaningful and insightful ideas.

  • Breadth: How many buckets does your structure consist of at the top level? While in a profitability case, the top level is given, for many other cases you can expand your top level by several buckets (Real MBB case question: ”What could be the reason our machines break down at different rates in different locations?”).
  • Depth: How deep do you go into each top-level idea and come up with levers/areas to look at below? How well can you support your top-level with the actual ideas that influence it?
  • Innovation: How meaningful and insightful are your ideas? Create a mix of common components as well as more out-of-the-box answers. Tell the interviewer something they have not heard before.

Principles of success

Make sure that your structure adheres to the principles below.

  • MECE-ness: Refers to a grouping principle for separating a set of ideas into subsets that are mutually exclusive (no overlaps between the different branches of the issue tree) and collectively exhaustive (covering all important aspects). It is used to break down problems into logical and clean buckets of analysis.
  • Actionable: Your answer should only consist of ideas that you can exert influence on within the given time frame (e.g. if you are asked to come up with measures over the next year, everything beyond that should not be touched in your structure).
  • Logically coherent: Top levels and sub-levels should be consistent within their level and across levels. They should stick to the same hierarchy of importance and logic (e.g. if you are comparing revenue and cost, they should be at the same level, and everything that influences the two should be below).
  • Relevant: The content should be relevant to the case at hand, tailored to the client, and easy to follow and communicate. Avoid over-structuring your case. Find a few broad categories at the top and then break them down further.
  • Hypothesis-driven: You should have a clear idea of where the problem is buried or what solution is best for the client from the start, and while moving through the structure and gathering additional information, that hypothesis should become clearer.

Memorizing Frameworks is the Worst Thing You Can Do

Upon beginning work with new clients, it becomes immediately evident when they’ve memorized standard frameworks, as this practice typically affects their early performance noticeably. It’s hard to fault them, given that prevalent case interview guidance and literature still advocate memorizing frameworks to apply or tweak across various cases.

Be aware that framework templates were applicable 15 years ago, in the era of Victor Cheng and Case in Point. McKinsey and other top-tier firms have long caught up on this and the cases you will get during the interviews are tailored in a way to test your creativity and ability to generate insights, not remember specific frameworks.

In fact, it will hurt you when you try to use a framework on a case that calls for a completely different approach. Also, it gives a false sense of security that will translate to stress once you figure out how your approach won’t work during the real interview – We have seen this so many times…

Your goal should be to master various framework creation methods, allowing you to build custom issue trees and frameworks, interpret charts, and perform math no matter the case’s context, industry, or function. Our approach teaches you this and trains your ability to come up with deep, broad, and insightful structures for each case individually.

Also, be aware that there is no typical McKinsey case interview framework, BCG case interview framework, or Bain case interview framework. All firms use a diverse set of cases, which are usually developed by each interviewer individually based on a real consulting project they have completed.

If you are looking for case interview examples, check out this article, where we have compiled a link list of all publicly available MBB and tier-2 consultancy cases.

Back to the frameworks: Memorizing frameworks for a case interview may seem like an effective strategy, but in reality, this practice is detrimental to your performance. McKinsey, BCG, Bain, and other top consulting firms want to see candidates come up with their own solutions and innovative approaches.

I want to show you why memorized frameworks like the ones from Case In Point or Victor Cheng do not work and supplement these with plenty of examples to bring the point across. In the end, I want to introduce you to my Structuring Drills course as well as my Case Interview Preparation book, The 1%: Conquer Your Consulting Case Interview. Both resources are aimed at developing you into a world-class case interviewee.

Below are the top reasons why memorized frameworks and cookie-cutter approaches do not work.

No points for problem-solving

First, case interviews are designed to test your problem-solving and critical-thinking skills, not your ability to regurgitate memorized information. Frameworks are meant to be a guide, not a script. Using a memorized framework in an interview can make it obvious that you are not thinking critically about the problem at hand, which can make it difficult for you to impress the interviewer. Interviewers want to see insightful analytical constructs, which means that they need to be tailored, relevant, and concrete.

If you just use memorized buckets, you will score badly in terms of problem-solving. To see a real scoring sheet, go here.

Cases have become much more creative

Second, case interviews often involve unique and unpredictable scenarios. No two cases are the same, so a memorized framework may not apply to the specific problem you are presented with. Attempting to force a framework onto an unrelated problem can make it clear that you lack flexibility and the ability to adapt to new situations.

For instance, let’s look at a real McKinsey case example from a couple of years ago.

You are working with an operator of a specific type of machines. They break down at different rates at different locations. What factors can you think of why that would happen?

Example of a McKinsey Case Interview Structure Questions

Which Victor Cheng framework or Cosentino ideas would you present here to the interviewer? There is not a single bucket that would work.

Let us look at an example answer for this prompt.

Example Framework in a McKinsey Case Interview

You limit your creativity

Third, using a memorized framework can limit your ability to think creatively. When you are focused on trying to fit the problem into a pre-existing framework, you may miss opportunities to come up with innovative solutions.

1% of candidates make it through the filter of MBB. You want to provide insights the interviewer has not heard before and not be just like the other 99% that fail to impress.

You have no rationale

Fourth, case interviews also test your ability to communicate and present your thought process effectively. When you are relying on a memorized framework, you may not be able to explain the reasoning behind your solutions and ideas. This can make it difficult for the interviewer to understand your thought process and evaluate your problem-solving skills.

Interviewers want to understand why you think a certain way, not just what you think. Memorizing frameworks completely kills your ability to support and defend your choices.

In conclusion, memorized frameworks can be detrimental to your performance in a case interview. Instead, it’s better to focus on developing your problem-solving, critical thinking, flexibility, creativity, and communication skills. These are the skills that are truly valued in case interviews and a business setting later on.

Let’s have a brief look at how you can become a better problem solver and create frameworks like an actual consultant.

Apply a First-Principles Approach to Frameworks

Consultants approach problems from a first-principles perspective. If you learn how to do the same, not only will you come across as an equal to them, not just another case interviewee, but your analytical lens and case performance will skyrocket. Adopt these innovative framework creation methods for case interviews.

First-principles thinking

At the core of your idea generation should be first principles thinking, which refers to the process of systematically deconstructing a problem or situation into its constituent parts in a MECE way. Only by following this approach can you identify where the issue in a case comes from and how big it is (the what), then dive deeper to understand the reason (the why) to eventually work on a solution (the how). First principles allow you to break a situation down into its core pieces and then put it back together.

For instance:

“What do we need to build an aircraft?”

  • A factory (infrastructure)
  • Tools and equipment
  • Materials
  • Staff
  • Financial means
  • Know-how

From there, you go into second and third-order considerations; for instance, for staff:

  • What qualifications are needed?
    • Formal education and training
    • Work experience
  • How many people do we need?
    • # of people in total
    • # of people for different areas (e.g., engines vs. wings)
  • How can we hire them?
    • Supply of and demand for labor in the area
    • Job advertisement
  • How can we retain them?
    • Working conditions
    • Remuneration and benefits
    • Training

There are several ways you can employ this type of thinking for creating case interview frameworks. First, we look at the top level of your issue tree, the foundation of your problem-solving, and then explore in more depth the branches, all with a first principles perspective in mind.

Framework creation techniques

For most cases, you can focus on problem deconstruction from two angles: examining the components involved and understanding the process.

To illustrate, we’ll explore the example of improving customer satisfaction for an airline.

The component approach

When we dissect a problem through the lens of its components, we look at the static elements that make up the situation. For an airline, this could include the tangible and intangible assets that affect a customer’s experience. These components might encompass the aircraft itself (comfort, cleanliness, amenities), the staff (friendliness, efficiency), the booking system (ease of use, flexibility), and ancillary services (lounge access, on-board meals).

By examining each component individually, you can identify potential areas for improvement. For example, an analysis might reveal that enhancing the on-board meal quality could significantly boost overall customer satisfaction. This approach requires a deep dive into each element, assessing its current state, impact on the customer journey, and potential for optimization.

The process approach

Alternatively, examining the problem through a process lens involves mapping out the sequence of steps a customer takes, from booking a flight to reaching their destination. This perspective allows you to identify pain points and opportunities for enhancement at each stage of the customer journey.

For instance, you might discover that the check-in process is a significant bottleneck, causing frustration and setting a negative tone for the journey. By streamlining this process, perhaps through more efficient use of technology or additional staff training, you could improve the overall customer experience, thereby increasing satisfaction.

Once you have generated your top-level buckets, expand those ideas into more concrete ideas on the levels below. For instance, from a component perspective, you might have identified staff as an area to investigate.

Next, think about what type of staff a typical passenger encounters like booking agents, check-in staff, lounge personnel, cabin crew, etc. Voila, you have created the most concrete and final level of your analytical framework structure.

Try it out yourself when you encounter the next case problem and think about it either from a process or component perspective, then dive deeper.

While it might be harder initially to use this approach of creating frameworks from scratch, the outcome over time always beats memorization. Hence, we do not recommend any other way to learn and practice frameworks.

Practicing Case Interview Framework Creation and Problem Deconstruction

Developing a strong foundation in creating case interview frameworks is essential for success in consulting interviews. This skill is not about memorizing a set of frameworks but understanding how to construct them from scratch based on the problem at hand. Here’s how you can hone this ability:

1. Master content creation techniques for problem deconstruction: Our course is designed to equip you with the right techniques for breaking down complex problems into manageable parts. We focus on first principles thinking and an intuitive way of breaking down problems, enabling you to understand the core elements of any issue you’re presented with, which is crucial for custom framework creation.

2. Practice with a variety of cases: Exposure to a wide range of case scenarios is key. Our library includes over 100 practice cases, complete with detailed answer keys and explanations. This diverse set of examples will not only improve your ability to adapt your framework to different problems but also enhance your problem-solving speed and efficiency.

3. Regularly read business publications and magazines: Keeping up-to-date with the latest in the business world is invaluable. This habit sharpens your business acumen, enriches your understanding of current market trends, and deepens your industry knowledge, all of which are critical when you need to tailor your frameworks to specific contexts.

4. Understand basic business concepts and terminology: A solid grasp of fundamental business concepts and jargon is non-negotiable. This foundational knowledge ensures you can speak the language of business fluently, making it easier to structure your thoughts and communicate effectively during the case interview.

Remember, the goal is not to memorize frameworks but to learn how to construct them dynamically as per the needs of the case. This approach ensures that your frameworks are always tailored, insightful, and directly relevant to the problem you’re solving.

Also, do not forget that creating the structure at the beginning of the case is just the first step. There are also other elements to consider in a consulting interview preparation plan.

Case Interview Framework in McKinsey Interviews

Since the McKinsey interview is interviewer-led, there is an extra emphasis on the structuring part.

At the core, McKinsey wants to see creative ideas communicated in a structured manner, the more exhaustive the better. Your goal should be to come up with a tailored and creative answer that fits the question.

In a McKinsey interview, you can take up to 2 minutes to draft your structure, IF the structure you come up with is strong and

  • hits all the key points that the firm wants to see and
  • is communicated in the right way.

A big issue I see with coaching candidates is that they take too little time to structure their thoughts because they feel pressured to be quick rather than exhaustive and creative.

An additional 30 seconds can often make the difference between a bad structure and a good one or a good one and an excellent one. So my battle-tested advice is to get rid of this time-pressure mindset, especially in a McKinsey interview.

Now for the content of the structure, there is no right or wrong answer. Some answers are better than others because they are

  • deep
  • broad
  • insightful
  • hypothesis-driven
  • follow a strong communication (MECE, top-down, signposted)

That being said, there is no 100% that you can reach or a one-and-only solution/ answer. It is important that your answers display the characteristics specified above and are supported well with arguments.

Also different from other firms, you can take up to roughly 5-6 minutes to present your structure, your qualifications, and hypotheses. This is due to the interviewer-led format that McK employs. The firm wants to see exhaustive and creative approaches to specific problems.

Again, this only applies if everything you say

  • adds value to the problem analysis
  • is MECE
  • is well qualified
  • includes a detailed discussion of your hypotheses at the end

The difference in format and way of answering a question is the reason why I recommend preparing differently for McKinsey interviews vs. other consultancies’ interviews.

Read more about the McKinsey interview process and the McKinsey case interview specifically.

We Help You Draft Frameworks and Communicate Them Well

I have seen memorized and cookie-cutter frameworks destroy many candidates’ performance and chances to get an offer for many years now. The only issue that is bigger than that is the typical candidate’s ability to handle case math (but that is for another time).

The image is the cover for the bestselling consulting case interview book by florian smeritschnig

To conquer that and many other things that I think are wrong with today’s standard literature on case interviews, I wrote The 1%: Conquer Your Consulting Case Interview. The book is available on Amazon and covers frameworks, case structuring, and brainstorming in great depth. It teaches you how to think and not to memorize faulty frameworks (among 340+ pages of other valuable case interview content).

Once you have understood how to tackle a case structure, you can practice with the Case Structuring Course and Drills here on

We have specialized in placing people from all walks of life with different backgrounds into top consulting firms, both as generalist hires as well as specialized hires and experts. As former McKinsey consultants and interview experts, we focus on teaching the best habits and strategies to ace every case interview, including idea generation, problem-solving, and brainstorming, all from a first-principles perspective.

We can help you by

Reach out to us if you have any questions! We are happy to help and offer a tailored program to help you break into consulting.

To improve your skills in all areas of the interview, check out some of our targeted offers below.

Frequently Asked Questions about Case Interview Frameworks

In more than 1600 case interview sessions at the time of editing this article, several questions have come up frequently from my clients. To assist you in this critical phase of your case interview preparation, I’ve compiled a list of frequently asked questions about case interview frameworks.

These questions aim to shed light on the nuances of preparing for and excelling in case interviews, providing you with insights to enhance your understanding and skills.

How do specific industries impact the creation of case interview frameworks?
Industries play a crucial role in shaping the choice of case interview framework components, specifically at the lower levels. At the top level, most companies are built in the same way, regardless if they are offering a product or a service. The main difference to tailor it to the industry usually happens on the lower levels of the framework. For instance, while both an airline and a bookstore generate revenue, which is comprised of price times quantity, the pricing for an airline works very differently (e.g., ticket price, booking fee, seat allocation fee, baggage allowance fee, etc).

Can you provide real-life examples of case interview questions from top consulting firms and how to apply frameworks to them?
While specific real-life examples are proprietary, many consulting firms publish practice cases on their websites. These can serve as a valuable resource for understanding how to apply frameworks to solve common business problems, with each case typically demonstrating the application of different analytical frameworks. We have collected many free practice cases from different firms here.

What are the common mistakes candidates make when structuring their approach in case interviews, and how can they avoid them?
Common mistakes include overly relying on memorized frameworks without creating new ones for the specific case, failing to listen actively to the interviewer’s hints, and neglecting to structure answers in a MECE (mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive) manner. Avoid these by practicing flexibility, active listening, and ensuring your approach is tailored and comprehensive.

How has the approach to case interviews and the use of frameworks changed over the past decade?
The approach has shifted towards evaluating candidates’ ability to think creatively and adapt frameworks dynamically rather than relying solely on memorized structures. This change reflects the consulting industry’s need for innovative problem solvers who can navigate complex and evolving business landscapes.

Are there any differences in how frameworks should be applied in virtual versus in-person case interviews?
The core principles remain the same, but virtual interviews require candidates to be even more clear and structured in their communication, given the lack of physical presence. Ensuring technical setup is optimal and practicing verbalizing your thought process can help bridge the gap.

What role does creativity play in structuring case interviews, and how can candidates balance it with the use of standard frameworks?
Creativity is crucial for developing tailored and insightful frameworks that go beyond standard responses. Candidates should not use standard frameworks but explore creative angles and solutions to demonstrate their unique problem-solving abilities.

How can non-business background candidates quickly grasp the concept of case interview frameworks?
Non-business candidates should start with foundational problem-solving practices and business concepts and practice applying them to diverse case scenarios. Leveraging resources like business publications, online courses, and practice cases can accelerate their understanding and application of case frameworks.

What are the interviewers’ perspectives on the use of frameworks, and what do they look for in a candidate’s approach?
Interviewers seek candidates who can create their own frameworks flexibly and creatively, showing an understanding of the underlying business principles. They value clarity, logical structuring, and the ability to derive actionable insights tailored to the specific case. Interviewers usually do not pass candidates who use memorized frameworks that do not fit the case.

How can candidates effectively practice and improve their framework structuring skills?
Practice is key. Engaging in mock interviews, analyzing case studies, and receiving feedback from peers or mentors can greatly improve your ability to structure effective frameworks. Additionally, regularly challenging yourself with new and diverse case scenarios can build adaptability and depth in problem-solving. If frameworks are one of your key development areas, do not waste time going through full cases. Rather, work on individual drills back to back to create a habit of deconstructing problems accurately and swiftly.

What are some advanced techniques for customizing frameworks to fit unique case interview scenarios?
To customize frameworks for unique case interview scenarios, focus on deconstructing the problem using first principles thinking. Break down the issue into its fundamental components or underlying steps to understand its structure. This approach enables you to create a tailored framework that directly addresses the specificities of the scenario. Apply relevant industry insights and business sense to enhance your analysis. Begin with a clear, strong hypothesis to steer your investigation and framework construction, ensuring that every part of your framework is directly relevant to unraveling the core problem at hand.

Do you have a framework-related question or struggle? Reach out to us in the comments below and we are happy to help!

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